Jesus and the End Time | Introduction
General Overview

The contents of the Bible prophecy website titled "Jesus and the End Time" may be summarized as follows. This website includes a number of web pages and downloadable Adobe ® PDF files which together make up a writing that shows and discusses End Times teachings of Jesus described in the King James Version of the Bible, a version the writer usually refers to as the King James Bible or KJV Bible. The most important of these web pages and files include KJV Bible passages ("texts" for short) which show things Jesus said or is described as teaching about the End Time. In many cases these texts are followed by citations to and/or discussions of other New Testament texts that are related to them or otherwise shed light on their meanings. In other cases these texts are followed by citations to and discussions of Old Testament texts Jesus quotes from or alludes to in order to explain or support his End Times teachings. In all but a few cases the actual words of these texts are shown in full, along with all of the accompanying verses necessary to enable readers to read them both in their immediate contexts and in the larger context of the texts which are related to them. By showing texts like these in this way, and by limiting his role to pointing out and discussing relationships between them, the writer lets the KJV Bible present the teachings of Jesus about the End Times in its own words and, where possible, in words spoken by Jesus himself. It is therefore reasonable to think of this writing as an Eschatology of Jesus that is based on words which actually appear in the KJV Bible and discussions of how their meanings may be affected by the ways the same or similar words are used in other parts of the Bible.

To assure that the information this website provides about the End Times teachings of Jesus is as clear and complete as possible while keeping its size within reasonable limits, the writer takes two other steps. The first is to discuss how the meanings of the most important End Time passages of the KJV Bible may be affected by the senses in which they use words or phrases that play a key role in the teachings of Jesus. Examples of some of most important of these include words or phrases like the "kingdom of God", "kingdom of heaven", "the Son of man", heaven and hell. Because it is impractical to discuss the senses in which the Bible uses words or phrases like these each time it uses them, the writer discusses these senses in separate, stand-alone files shown under the Auxiliary Sense Files heading of the Table of Contents page of this website. The second of these steps is to avoid taking sides in disputes which involve doctrinal issues which are difficult understand without using specialized analytical techniques or tools, such as textual criticism, historical criticism, stylistic studies, etc. This step is important because meaningfully discussing an issue of this kind could occupy more space than the whole of this writing. By taking these steps, the writer tries to present the teachings of Jesus about the End Time thoroughly enough to make this writing interesting to serious students of the Bible, but not so thoroughly that only highly educated Biblical scholars can understand them.

Overview of End Time Terminology and Teachings

Generally speaking, a KJV Bible text will be shown and discussed in this writing if it: (1) shows or describes one or more End Time teachings of Jesus and is found in a New Testament book other than the Book of Revelation, (2) is an Old Testament text Jesus quotes from or alludes to in order to explain or support his End Time teachings, or (3) is related to such texts or otherwise sheds light on their meanings. Of special interest among these are texts which include End Times Prophecies of Jesus. In most cases the writer refers to texts of all of these kinds as End Time texts. In cases in which a text relates to all or part of any of the prophetic discourses Jesus gives on the Mount of Olives (a.k.a. Olivet discourses or eschatological discourses), however, he refers to them as End Time discourses or End Time discourse texts, depending on whether he refers to all or only parts thereof. To assure that these texts are shown in a way that is as free of sectarian bias as possible, the writer shows them in the order in which they appear in the Bible, and with as many verses as necessary to show them in context. In almost all cases End Time texts are followed by annotation-like entries called Notes which cite or discuss other Bible texts that seem to be related to them and, consequently, ought to be read in conjunction with them. Because this writing is organized in this way, it may be read either like a book, page-by-page, starting at the beginning, or like an encyclopedia, text-by-text, starting anywhere.

In this writing, the writer often uses the terms "End Time" and "End Times" interchangeably as proper nouns. When he does this, he uses these terms as broad generic substitutes for any of the many different words or phrases that the KJV Bible uses to describe a time or period of time when God will intervene in human history, put a final end to evil and injustice, and usher in a future in which the good are rewarded and the wicked punished. Because this writing is concerned mainly with the teachings of Jesus about an intervention of this kind, the Bible texts which are of interest for present purposes are those which portray Jesus using words or phrases that refer to or describe the time when this kind of intervention will occur. Examples of texts of this kind include texts which describe teachings of Jesus about the end of the world, the world to come, the regeneration, the Last Day (or Last days), the Last Time, or the coming of the kingdom of God, the kingdom of heaven, or other End Time Kingdom. Other examples include texts which describe teachings of Jesus about the coming of the Son of man, the days of the Son of man, the Day of Judgment, heaven and hell, and everlasting punishment. The writer uses the terms "End Time" and "End Times" to describe the time that texts of these kinds speak of, even though they do not appear as such* in the Bible, because they are clear enough and broad enough to assure that this time is not confused with other times the Bible describes as times when God has already intervened or may yet intervene in human history.
* Special Note on Terminology:
While the Bible does not use the term "end time" as such anywhere, it does use the similar term "time of the end" as such five times, but only in the Book of Daniel. See Dan. 8:17, Dan. 11:35 and 40, and Dan. 12:4 and 9.

In this writing, the writer also uses the terms "End Time" and "End Times" interchangeably as Bible-based synonyms for broader, more inclusive adjectives like "apocalyptic" and "eschatological". When he does this, he uses these terms as proper adjectives which indicate that the words or phrases they are used with are associated with the time of the end. One already-described example is their use with the word "text" to produce the coined term "End Time text", a term the writer often uses to refer to KJV Bible texts which include words or phrases that are associated with the End Time. Two more specific examples include their use with the word "kingdom" to produce coined terms like "End Time Kingdom" and "End Time Kingdom text". Terms of these kinds are important because they allow the writer to use only a few words to say that a text uses the word "kingdom" in a sense that is associated with the End Time (e.g., Matt. 16:28), and not in a sense that probably isn't (e.g., Matt. 12:25). Other specific examples include the use of End Time or End Times with the word "Judgment" to produce coined terms like "End Time Judgment" and "End Time Judgment text", both of which convey the idea of a judgment that is associated with the End Time. Other examples of coined terms of these kinds are discussed in the Notes in which they first appear.

Finally, the writer uses the terms "End Time" and "End Times" because they are similar to other terms, such as End-Time, End-Times and Endtime, that are already well-known and widely used in the popular apocalyptic literature and/or on other Bible prophecy websites. Unfortunately, many writings of the latter kind spend more time discussing KJV Bible teachings about End Times prophecies that appear in the Book of Revelation and/or the Book of Daniel than they do discussing End Times prophecies of Jesus that appear in the Gospels. As a result, readers should not assume that the words or phrases which this writer treats as of End Time interest in this writing are necessarily the same as the words or phrases which other writers treat as of End Time interest in their writings. In spite of this, there are a small number of terms which are so well-known and widely used that the writer will treat them as if they were of real End Time interest for present purposes, even though they do not appear as such anywhere in the KJV Bible. Examples of terms of this kind include: the End of Days, Judgment day, the Last Judgment, Doomsday, the end of the age, the second coming, the Parousia and the Eschaton.

The Scope of the Present Writing: What Is Included and Why

This writing is not intended to show and discuss all of the things that the KJV Bible teaches about the End Times. Instead, it concerns itself only with showing and discussing End Times Teachings of Jesus that appear in the King James Bible version of New Testament books other than the Book of Revelation, and with things said about the End Times in Biblical books that Jesus would have known and used during the time of his public ministry, i.e., the things said about it in the books we now call the Old Testament. While limiting the scope of this writing in this way prevents it from being used to learn all of the things the KJV Bible teaches about the End Times, this limitation is actually one of its strengths. This is because limiting the scope of this writing in this way encourages readers to focus on clearly understanding the prophecies, sayings and other teachings of Jesus about the End Times before adding to them the things other people wrote about the End Times decades after his death. This is also because, in cases in which the writings of these others are open to different interpretations, readers can use their understanding of the teachings of Jesus to decide which of them Jesus is most likely to have agreed with.

Some people will no doubt object to this writing on the ground that, since all of the things that the Bible says are inspired by the Holy Spirit, there is no reason to treat the things Jesus said about the End Time any differently than the things that persons like Paul, Peter, John, James and Jude said about it after his death. While this objection makes sense to a point, it does not take into account that, in the writer's opinion, it is unreasonable to treat Jesus as if he were just another person whose words and actions are recorded in the New Testament. This is because Jesus is much more than that. He is, in fact, its central figure and the person without whom it would not have been written. This is also because the New Testament describes Jesus as a person who is one with the Father (John 10:30), who speaks words that his indwelling Father commands him to speak (John 12:49 and 14:10), and whose very breath is suffused with the Holy Ghost (John 20:22). As a result, the writer submits that giving words spoken by Jesus the same weight as those of persons like Paul, who was not a follower of Jesus during the time of his public ministry, is tantamount to reducing Jesus to "just another face in the crowd."

Other people may object to this writing on the ground that not including things Jesus said about the End Times in the Book of Revelation leaves out important parts of the Biblical book that has the most to say about these Times. While this objection also makes sense to a point, it does not take into account that this book uses such obscure symbolism and cryptic language that it supports many different and inconsistent interpretations. It also does not take into account that the Book of Revelation often leaves it unclear who is speaking, e.g., John himself, an unidentified angel or simply a great voice from heaven that may or may not be Jesus or a person speaking for him. Finally, it does not take into account that the parts of the Book of Revelation that Red Letter editions of the KJV Bible show as words spoken by Jesus (parts of chapters 1-3 and a handful of verses in chapter 22) are not the parts of this book that are responsible for the elaborate and controversial descriptions of the End Times that appear in the popular apocalyptic literature and on other Bible prophecy websites. For all of these reasons, the writer believes that it is better to leave discussions of the meaning of the Book of Revelation to others and, instead, focus on providing the Scriptural background information readers ought to have before trying to evaluate the claims that others make about it.

Because the KJV Bible includes a large number of texts which use words or phrases ("terms" for short) that seem to be associated with the End Time, it is necessary to decide which are of enough End Time interest to include among the End Time texts of this writing, and which are not. To assure that these decisions are as free of sectarian bias as possible, the writer has chosen a number of tests (or criteria) that he believes to be well suited to this task, and then applied them as transparently as possible. One of these is whether it is an Old Testament text that uses terms which Christians frequently associate with the End Time. Some examples of terms of this kind have already been mentioned in the Overview above, e.g., the time of the end, the Last Days, the Son of man, and heaven and hell. Other examples include texts which use terms like the day of the Lord, the day of vengeance, and the day of wrath, or which prophesy things like the darkening of the sun and moon, the creating of a new earth and new heavens, and the setting up of a kingdom which shall never be destroyed. Surprisingly, however, some terms which figure prominently in the End Times teachings of Jesus, such as the kingdom of God and the kingdom of heaven, either do not appear at all in the Old Testament, or appear in forms that do not seem to apply to an End Time Kingdom. Examples of terms of this kind include two occurrences of "the kingdom of the Lord" (1Chron. 28:5 and 2Chron. 13:8) and several arguably similar terms, such as his, thy or my kingdom (Ps. 103:19 and Ps. 145:11-13).

Another test of whether a text is of enough End Time interest to include among the End Time texts of this writing is whether it is a New Testament text that shows or describes one or more teachings of Jesus about the End Time and/or uses one or more terms which Christians traditionally associate with this Time. Some examples of terms of this kind have already been given in connection with the End Times prophecies of Jesus mentioned in the Overview above, e.g., the end of the world, the world to come and the regeneration. Other examples include terms which are associated with the idea of an End Time Kingdom, such as the kingdom of God, the kingdom of heaven, the kingdom prepared for you, and the Son of man sitting on the throne of his glory. Still other examples include terms which are associated with the idea of an approaching or ongoing End Time Judgment, such as the coming of the Son of man, the days of the Son of man, the Day of Judgment (or Judgment Day or Last Judgment), the sending of angels to gather the elect, the separating of sheep from goats, and being worthy to stand before the Son of man. Other examples of the use of terms of these kinds are discussed in the Notes in which they first appear.

Still another test of whether a text is of enough End Time interest to include among the End Time texts of this writing is whether it describes End Time Teachings of Jesus which are based on the idea that people have two mutually exclusive final destinies (or fates), one for people who have lived good lives, or obtained God's saving grace, and a second for people who have not. Examples of texts which mention both of these destinies include texts which describe teachings of Jesus about heaven and hell, being saved or damned, having everlasting life (or eternal life) or suffering everlasting punishment (or eternal damnation), entering a kingdom prepared for them or departing into everlasting fire, etc. A text will also be included, even if it mentions only one of these final destinies, if its wording or context suggests that it relates to teachings of Jesus about an End Time Kingdom or End Time Judgment, or a reward or punishment that is associated with either. Because of the sheer number of different terms the KJV Bible uses in texts of these kinds, the writer may use any of a variety of differently worded pairs of coined terms to refer to or describe a person's future destiny or fate. Examples of such pairs of coined terms include "Salvation and Damnation", "Rewards and Punishments" and "Heaven and Hell".

In the writer's opinion, however, the most important test of whether a text is of enough End Time interest to include in this writing is whether it is a part of or related to any of the prophetic speeches or discourses that Matthew, Mark and Luke describe Jesus giving after he was asked when his prophecy about the destruction of the temple would be fulfilled. This is because these discourses comprise the Bible's longest and most detailed accounts of the teachings of Jesus about the End Times, and because they bring together, clarify and reaffirm many of the things he teaches about the End Times elsewhere in the KJV Bible. Many Bible scholars refer to these discourses as "Olivet discourses" because the Gospels of Matthew and Mark describe Jesus giving them on the Mount of Olives. Other Bible scholars prefer to refer to them as "apocalyptic discourses", "eschatological discourses" or "little apocalypses". Because the writer uses the term "End Time" to refer to the time that Jesus speaks of in these discourses, he will usually refer to these discourses as "End Time discourses". When, however, the writer discusses the totality of the teachings of Jesus about the End Times in the New Testament (except for the Book of Revelation), and not just the things Jesus teaches about it in these discourses, he will ordinarily refer to this totality of teachings as End Times teachings of Jesus or, more formally, the Eschatology of Jesus.

Before bringing this part of the Introduction to a close, the writer wishes to discuss the differences between the way he deals with the words of End Time texts that include End Times teachings of Jesus, and the way he deals with the words he uses in Notes that discuss how these teachings may affect one another. More particularly, the writer deals with the words of Bible texts by showing them in full and in context, but in a densely packed format that maximizes the number of verses a person can read online without scrolling. In the Notes that discuss the teachings of these texts, on the other hand, the writer reserves the right use whatever words he thinks will best enable them to serve their purpose. In most cases, this purpose is to point out other End Time texts which are related to them, describe how they are related, and then discuss how the similarities and differences between them may affect their meanings. Since these texts were written by different authors, they often use different words and writing styles. As a result, the writer often finds it helpful to switch back and forth between discussing texts in broad generic terms, using terms like "End Time Kingdom" and "End Time Judgment", and discussing them in narrow author-specific terms, when doing so makes his Notes shorter and more readable without stripping them of nuance. Because the writer deals with most End Time texts and Notes in this way, readers can use the broad generic terms shown in Notes to find the kinds of End time texts they are interested in, and then switch to studying the actual words of those texts until he is satisfied that he understands them as connected parts of a unitary whole.

In order to limit the size of the web page version of the Introduction, the writer here concludes the part of the Introduction that appears under the heading titled "The Scope of the Present Writing: What is Included and Why?" In the full length, Adobe PDF version of the Introduction, the part of the Introduction that follows the latter heading comprises a detailed description of the structure and organization of this writing that appears under the heading titled "The Structure of the Present Writing: How It Is Organized and Why." Readers who are interested in reading the full length PDF version of this document can find and read or download that version from the Table of Contents page of this website. Clicking on the link shown below will take interested readers to the Table of Contents page. Once there, they can open this document by clicking on the link titled "Introduction" that is located near the center of that page.

See  TABLE OF CONTENTS  to read or download complete copies of all files
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Jesus and the Day of Judgment


Jesus and Resurrection